Psychology/ Sociology Assignment Questions

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Q. For this assignment you are required to write an essay that contains a valid argument based on the literature:
•    Provide an introduction that explains the purpose of the essay and how the argument(s) will be organized.
•    A common mistake is to provide a review of the literature and not include an argument.
•    End the essay with a strong conclusion that summarizes the arguments presented in the body of the essay. Make sure you take a stand and not just sit on the fence by saying more research is needed before a conclusion can be reached.
•    It is important to remember that the purpose of an introduction is to broadly introduce the area of interest and then provide a road map for the reader. In contrast, the purpose of the conclusion is to summarize the main points and provide direction for how to proceed in the future.
•    You should write in complete sentences (i.e. do not use dot points). However, if you think a summary will enhance the contents of your essay you can insert the information usually included in dot point form in a Table.
•    If you choose to insert a Table or Figure into your essay you will need to make sure the Table or Figure adheres to APA style.
•    The writing style in an essay is more formal than verbal speech. Make sure you do not write as you would speak.
•    The essay must be written in the third person. Please note: the word “I” is not used when writing in the third person.
•    Paraphrase information. For this essay quotes should only be used if the information cannot be written any other way.
•    Write your essay from the position of an expert. This means not starting a sentence with a reference and instead places the reference at the end of the sentence in brackets. A reference supports what you are saying, it should not be the main feature of a sentence. For example: “Higgs (2012) states that communication is very important to client safety” can be written as: “Communication is very important to client safety (Higgs, 2012).”
•    Make sure you reference your work. Every statement of fact needs an in-text reference and as a general rule every paragraph in an essay should have at least one in-text reference.
•    Pay attention to how you structure your sentences and paragraphs. A sentence contains one piece of information. Alternatively, a paragraph contains more than one sentence but deals with only one topic. Do not try to put too little or too much information into a paragraph because doing this is confusing for the reader.
•    Pay attention to spelling, grammar and punctuation.
•    Make sure you run the spell checker over you essay and then give it a last proof read before formally submitting for assessment.
Referencing

You must use the APA referencing system.

Q. PhotoVoice is a research methodology commonly used with disadvantaged groups as a way to examine their interactions with, and perceptions of, the world. Photos become the visual image through which a story can be told.
In the first week, Chris Abani spoke about human rights in terms of dignity and what happens when it is oppressed – when basic freedoms are denied.
Choose a population group or an issue related to human rights and social justice where you believe dignity has been oppressed and freedoms have been denied. Using 3-5 photos (please do not include anyone’s face), construct a narrative that you believe represents the current situation with this population group or issue and how a human rights-based practice within your discipline can advocate and empower people in such situations. For example, a photo of bars could represent imprisonment; a photo of two different hands together could represent the freedom to talk to an advocate. Use peer-reviewed articles and scholarly books, as well as media pieces, to justify and strengthen your arguments.
You won’t be marked on your photographic skills but you will be marked on the strength of your arguments and narrative.
Your assignment will be marked out of 50 marks:
•    Academic writing – 5 marks
•    Concepts (Content and issues) – 20 marks
•    Analysis and Critique – 25 marks

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Q.Which of the following terms refers to excellent knowledge about the content of a specific discipline?

  1. Expert knowledge
  2. Pedagogical content knowledge
  3. Reciprocal teaching
  4. Transactional understanding

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Q.Ryan has just received his first teaching position. After a celebratory dinner with his wife, he sits down to plan his first lesson unit. As images of multiple activities, materials, and projects start to run rampant, he tries to focus on the content of the first lesson. As he glances at the topic, only vague principles come to mind, so he looks down his list of lesson units for the school year. He realizes in all his enthusiasm over diverse and effective teaching methods and materials, he has lost sight of the heart of the matter: the scientific content! Which of the following areas is Ryan questioning his abilities in?

  1. Reciprocal teaching
  2. Transactional instruction
  3. Expert knowledge
  4. Pedagogical content knowledge

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Q.According to recent research (Mayer 2004, 2008), which of the following are the three key cognitive processes a child needs to go through in order to read a printed word? (PSB 4504)

  1. Expert knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and assessment knowledge
  2. Awareness of sound units in words, decoding words, and accessing word meaning
  3. Phonology, morphology, and syntax
  4. Phonics, decoding, translation

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Q.Which of the following especially focuses on grammar skills? (DEP 4053)

  1. Phonology
  2. Morphology
  3. Syntax
  4. Semantics

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Q.Which of the following is an example of how teachers can help students become better readers? (PSY 2012)

  1. Provide a print-rich environment.
  2. Read what students are reading.
  3. Talk about the most interesting parts of books and show excitement during discussions.
  4. All of these

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Q.In the developmental model of reading, which stage refers to the point individuals begin reading by learning to sound out words, and finalize their learning of letter names and sounds?

  1. Stage 0
  2. Stage 1
  3. Stage 2
  4. Stage 3
  5. Stage 4

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Q.In the developmental model of reading, which stage refers to the point where individuals are fully competent readers and have developed the ability to understand written material from multiple perspectives? (DEP 3053)

  1. Stage 1
  2. Stage 2
  3. Stage 3
  4. Stage 4

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Q.Reading instruction that emphasizes paralleling children’s natural learning of language and the use of meaningful reading material refers to which approach to reading? (EXP 3604)

  1. Phonics approach
  2. Whole-language approach
  3. Cognitive approach
  4. Social constructivist approach

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Q.Research has concluded that children from welfare homes receive how much language experience in their early years?

  1. Nearly 30% of the amount of that found among professional families
  2. Nearly 50% of the amount of that found among professional families
  3. Nearly 70% of the amount of that found among professional families
  4. The same amount of that found among professional families

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Q.Ms. Daniels is discussing Reggie’s paper with him after class. Ms. Daniels notices that while Reggie has grasped the plot of Moby Dick, his paper does not meet the criteria of addressing the book’s dilemma from the different viewpoints of the main characters. Which developmental stage of reading would you say Reggie is in? (PCO 4930)

  1. Stage 1
  2. Stage 2
  3. Stage 3
  4. Stage 4

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Q.Students get into their groups before receiving their reading assignment. The teacher reminds students of the three rules of group reading in her classroom: help each other, share your opinions, and ask peers or the teacher questions if you don’t understand. Which approach to reading does this relate to?(PSY 2012)

  1. Phonics approach
  2. Whole-language approach
  3. Cognitive approach
  4. Social constructionist approach

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Q.At which age can children usually reproduce letters and copy several short words?

  1. 1 year
  2. 2 to 3 years
  3. 5 years
  4. Elementary ages

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Q.The belief that writing is culturally embedded and social constructed is emphasized in which approach to writing?

  1. Cognitive
  2. Social constructivist
  3. Whole-language
  4. Phonics

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Q.In order to provide a supportive context for writing, teachers should provide what type of goals?

  1. Those that are simple so students are willing to try
  2. Those that are hard so students benefit from high teacher expectations
  3. Those of moderate difficulty so they are challenging yet realistic
  4. There is no one right way to determine effective goals.

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Q.Which of the following assignments is most consistent with the social constructivist approach to writing? (PSY 6905)

  1. Writing a book report about a novel read aloud during class
  2. Creating an outline to summarize main events studied during history class
  3. Writing a term paper about a topic studied during science class
  4. Writing an essay about a recent significant personal event

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Q.Which of the following assignments is the best example of “free-writing”?

  1. After studying a topic in life science, students are asked to write a summary of the main ideas and to develop examples.
  2. After students are presented with an idea for a topic, they are asked to write whatever they want about it.
  3. After students are given a chance to reflect on a recent event, they are asked to write a poem or short story about it.
  4. After proposing a controversial topic for debate, students are asked to generate logical arguments supporting one side or the other.

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Q.Ms. Davis outlines her approach to writing instruction for the upcoming school year. Last year students had such a hard time acquiring basic writing skills that Ms. Davis has developed a systematic approach that teaches students skills in the areas of time management, problem solving, monitoring, and revising. Which approach to writing does this match?

  1. Cognitive
  2. Social constructivist
  3. Whole-language
  4. Phonics

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Q.Lydia’s writing performance has significantly improved since her friend Cecile shared advice on how she approaches writing assignments. When Cecile receives a writing assignment, she first estimates how long it will take to complete the assignment. Then she sketches out a brief outline of the elements she wants to include before beginning the actual writing. Which strategy of the cognitive approach to writing does Cecile suggest?

  1. Planning
  2. Problem solving
  3. Revising
  4. Monitoring

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Q.Mr. Grammatica has made a pointed effort to gauge students’ prior knowledge of how to calculate percentages. He has had the repeated experience of students holding onto prior schemes despite their inaccuracy. So on the first day of class he passes around a worksheet to gauge their understanding. Which effective strategy of mathematics instruction is Mr. Grammatica focusing on?

  1. Making math realistic
  2. Considering students’ prior knowledge
  3. Making math activities social
  4. Incorporating innovative programs

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Q.Mrs. Schwartz teaches science. This year, her students created models of the solar system, wired a doll house, and built racing cars. Which of the following terms best describes this teacher’s approach to teaching science?

  1. Interactive demonstration strategy
  2. Seatwork-based instruction
  3. Direct instruction
  4. Constructivist instruction

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Q.Critics of constructivist approaches to teaching science repeatedly emphasize what argument?

  1. Not enough attention is given to discipline-specific information.
  2. Constructivist approaches have not been supported by enough research studies.
  3. More lecture-oriented models of teaching have proven to be more significantly linked to science achievement.
  4. Constructivist approaches focus on the memorization of facts, which does not promote critical thinking about scientific principles.

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Q.In order for students to learn both inquiry skills and science content, which of the following should occur?

  1. Teachers should carefully structure initial investigations.
  2. Students should plan and conduct subsequent investigations.
  3. Teachers should extensively monitor students’ independent investigations.
  4. All of these

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Q.Which is not a theme for social studies instruction proposed by the National Council for the Social Sciences? (PCO 4930)

  1. Time, continuity, and change
  2. Individual development and identity
  3. Science, technology, and society
  4. Focus on American social concerns

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Q.Martin brings up a valid question in his social studies class. He feels that if contributing to society is such an important goal for each individual, how can one person go about making a difference? Which social science theme does Martin’s question best pertain to? (PCO 7944)

  1. Time, continuity, and change
  2. Individuals, groups, and institutions
  3. Power, authority, and governance
  4. Civic ideals and practices

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