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Sociology Assignment Question
Post-humanism seems like dubious neologisms, which simply is interpreted as another image of the recurrent self-hate of humans (Badmington, 2000, p.2). Despite that, it might also indicate at some potential in the cultural context of humans, hinting at an inclination towards struggling for getting transformed into more than any trend (Davies, 1997, p.99).
Soper, K. (2012). The Humanism in Posthumanism, 365-378. doi: 10.3366/ ccs.2012.0069
Somewhere down the line there is a perception that five thousand years of sheer humanism might be witnessing an end, which is because humanism is getting transformed into what is helplessly known as post-humanism (Badmington, 2000).
Another philosopher, Hassan has used the word 'helplessly' many times to describe post-humanism. This could be perceived to assume that 'post-humanism' is essentially not brought to use by the critics due to the fact that it happens to be a term that conveys its meaning without any problems (Badmington, 2000, p.2). And despite that, it might also even be termed a 'dubious neologism'. In my opinion, it bears the potential for serving like a conducive shorthand that is concerning the generalized crisis. Therefore 'humans' must call 'post-humanism' being all the way helpless (Soper, 1995).
Thinkers such as Kate Soper as well as Tony Davies have given their thoughts about post-humanism being a wonderfully vague concept. On one hand, Davies playfully beseeches Humpty Dumpty by Lewis Carroll, for whom any word meant firm, neither more and no less (Badmington, 2000, p.2). On the other hand in the view of Soper, understanding of that term is related to the cultural context. Soper concludes that post-humanism invariably remains, more or less synonymic with atheism (Soper, 2012).
In my view (continuing with Kate Soper) post-humanism could be closely associated with dissemination of secularism (Soper, 2012). Mostly in the advanced regions of the globe that somebody brings in use involving this word as the title along with a cynicism. It should be ancient to what may be presented as a religion, which the Americans term as a progressive cult involving the broadminded rationalism of the current genre (Badmington, 2000, p.2).
However, in the opinion of Soper, the approach is something different. As per the prospective of contemporary universal philosophy, post-humanism is not treated as being progressive, instead it is perceived as reactionary (Badmington, 2000). This is concluded by the manner through which it creates positive appeal towards the belief of the core humanity and/or common integral feature, through which human beings could be defined as well as understood (Soper, 2012).
The latter idea remains at stake as far as the current proposition of engagement with post-humanism is concerned. In my view, Soper's outline should be incorporated in the philosophies of René Descartes, and then analyzed for a better understanding.
Descartes, R. (2012). Discourse On Method, [Google ebook] Retrieved from http://books.google.co.nz/books?hl=ko&lr=&id=cZLxDspafpAC&oi=fnd&pg=PT1&dq=descartes+r.+(2012).+discourse+on+method&ots=TeyTgQ5eEc&sig=1BikyJ5Cbzs2e1XZn4rDkK-JZA4#v=onepage&q&f=false
Apart from providing subjectivity to the power of judgments, 'reasons' also assists 'us' in telling the difference amongst the human as well as non-human (Descartes, 2012, p.22). Descartes, through his theodicy avant la letter, (Descartes, 2012 as cited in Badmington, 2000, p.3) asserts that in case there happened to be a machine having organs as well as appearances of a monkey, humans would not have been able to differentiate between the real as well as fake monkey (Mortimer, 1952). Descartes proposed that neither a machine nor an animal can ever have reasons, therefore indicating the absence of essential differences (Descartes, 2012, p.21). If, on the other hand, machines attempted to mimic humans, 'we' can tell the differences easily, in order to preserve a firm differentiation amongst the humans as well as inhuman (Derria, 1982, p.237). A judgment can be made easily on the basis of two distinct capabilities of humans, one for the dialogues as well as other for the actions based upon understanding (Descartes, 2012, p.147).
Sociology Assignment Solution
Post-humanism seeks to redefine humanity's place in the world (Wolfe, 2009) after a period of five thousand years of humanism in human history. Both Hassan (Hassan, 1977 ) and Sopher (Soper, 1995) have used the world helplessly in association with the rise of post-humanism. Badminton contends that posthumanism is not progressive but reactionary in its origin (Badmington, 2010). In my view (continuing with Kate Soper) post-humanism could be closely associated with dissemination of secularism (Soper, 2012).
Descartes arrived at an account of what it means to be human that had a huge impact on humanist thinking. Descartes asserted that reason alone assists 'us' in telling the difference between humans and non-humans and that both machines and animals cannot have a reason (Descartes, 2012).
Badminton explores the motivation behind the rise of post-humanism and suggests the works of Marx and Freud as possible originating points (Badmington, 2010). Freud unmasked man as a creature motivated by numerous desires which do not conform to the rule of consciousness propounded by Descartes and started the movement for the warning of humanism (Badmington, 2010).
Popular culture also showcases the demise of humanism. Sci-fi films project a threat to humans from the inhuman races. The debate involving the end of humanism was not limited to the critical theory as it spread throughout the everyday life of most of us (Derrida, 1982).
Traditional accessories such as jewelry, act as a physical extension of the person's body (Vanshtein, 2012). Vanshtein proposed a different view of disability. Disability is to take challenges of adversity as well as developing one's potential (Vanshtein, 2012). In western culture accessories are meant to decorate, but of late there has been a trend in the fashion world to decorate the accessories used by disabled people, such as prosthetic legs, which were earlier designed in such a way that it attracted the sympathy of the viewer, are now designed in such a way to make them desirable objects in themselves (Vanshtein, 2012). We see here, a phenomenon where fashion as a cultural institution is redefining its social function by re-tuning our emotions towards disability and otherness.