What’s best for Business: Utilitarianism or Deontology?

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Management Assignment Question

Essay topic: – What’s best for business: utilitarianism or deontology?

The essay requires:
Research and review of the contemporary literature in the topic area.
A range of citations and references that should demonstrate breadth and depth  of research.

Industry and/or organisational examples to be incorporated into the essay as

Illustrative evidence.

A original argument to be built through the use of critical thinking.
Critical evaluation in the essay’s conclusions.
Appropriate and accurate use of the Harvard referencing system

An example of an essay for this assessment is available for students to  download from the Portal. Other essay writing and referencing guides are  available on the Portal too.

Management Assignment Solution

Introduction

Business is a changing scenario and it has different principles and rules in different environments. To perform a business, there is required a set of principles and rules to be based, so that the actions taken are proper and produce the desired results. Utilitarianism is a concept which is based on the theory of performing the right action to produce the right consequence where the benefits are maximized and sufferings are reduced to a minimum. Deontology is a theory which is based on being acting based o morality and having a correct motive which ends in all good and no bad.

This paper argues that the best way for a business to operate is based on deontology because motives come first then the action and motives determine the quality of action and thus the quality of results.

Business based on De ontology and not on Utilitarianism

Motives are the fundamental origin of thoughts and this gets converted into actions, which indicates that the sequence of process is based on the purity and quality of the origin of thought. Adopting deontology as a business fundamental gives it a completely different outlook of having the right motive first, which follows the actions and the results. The basis of these pure motives is also based on the morality of humans. Though, morality is not a defined subject but the common human values and doing good to all mankind is one of the most common and grounded human values of morality, and if businesses follows such a concept, there will be a significant shift in the actions taken to pursue those motives and the subsequent results will be more fruitful than ever.

In utilitarianism, if a business decides to move its manufacturing from one country to another, is that a good action or a bad one? From a utilitarianism perspective, if the good coming from the action outweighs the bad effects, then it may be considered as a good one. In such a scenario, it is difficult to quantify the loss of the worker’s job losses in the country where the factory is stopped. Thus, if the harm to a small set of people by doing well to a larger set of people is justified, it cannot be said that the action is morally right because it is having a bad end result of making workers lose their job.

In deontology, a business can be judged by its motive of doing good. The end result may or may not be very desirable and may also create unwanted results, but the action is justified because the motive is good, then there will be new and fresh ideas that will come to the mind for thinking how most good can be done. If the motive is pure and good, it will open up ways to create new possibilities of doing good which is not possible in utilitarianism. This is because utilitarianism works on the basis of a fixed ethics of doing good for a large number of people and not thinking about the harm created by a smaller set of people. The difficulty in this is that it is impossible to quantify the progress and the change that a single man from a smaller set can bring about in this world.

The decision-making process is not based on ethical theories in businesses (Hunt and Vitell, 1986) and this makes the entire action sequence go wrong and may produce any kind of result. The decision making in business must be based on the ethics of utilitarianism and deontology to combine the better part of both ethics and produce desirable results. This may or may not be possible depending on the willingness of business owners to perform good deeds based on humanity and morality. The weakness of the deontology approach is the difficulty in gauging the outcome which may be harmful too, but when compared to utilitarianism, it gives a much more possibility of larger good because the process can be harmful treating individuals separately to meet similar outcome. This is unacceptable in deontology because it starts with the right and pure motive and leads to a pure result.

Deontology believes in treating everyone in the same manner without inequality and providing every individual with equal rights, and not a single person must be treated or used as a means to meet an end (Alexander and Moore, 2007). This itself is based on creating

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